India Ratifies International Labour Conventions

2019 ias preliminary exam test series

India has ratified the two Core Conventions of International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions 138 regarding admission of age to employment and Convention 182 regarding worst forms of Child Labour.

Convention 182 will cover more than 99 percent of the world’s children and the coverage of Convention 138 will leap from approximately 60 percent to almost 80 percent.

With ratification of these two core ILO conventions, India has ratified 6 out of 8 core ILO conventions, with the other 4 core ILO conventions relating to abolition of forced labour, equal remuneration and no discrimination between men and women in employment and occupation, thus reaffirming its commitment for promoting and realising fundamental principles and right at work.

Full List of International Labour Organization Conventions:

C001 – Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 1)
C002 – Unemployment Convention, 1919 (No. 2)
C003 – Maternity Protection Convention, 1919 (No. 3)
C004 – Night Work (Women) Convention, 1919 (No. 4)
C005 – Minimum Age (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 5)
C006 – Night Work of Young Persons (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 6)
C007 – Minimum Age (Sea) Convention, 1920 (No. 7)
C008 – Unemployment Indemnity (Shipwreck) Convention, 1920 (No. 8)
C009 – Placing of Seamen Convention, 1920 (No. 9)
C010 – Minimum Age (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 (No. 10)
C011 – Right of Association (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 (No. 11)
C012 – Workmen’s Compensation (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 (No. 12)
C013 – White Lead (Painting) Convention, 1921 (No. 13)
C014 – Weekly Rest (Industry) Convention, 1921 (No. 14)
C015 – Minimum Age (Trimmers and Stokers) Convention, 1921 (No. 15)
C016 – Medical Examination of Young Persons (Sea) Convention, 1921 (No. 16)
C017 – Workmen’s Compensation (Accidents) Convention, 1925 (No. 17)
C018 – Workmen’s Compensation (Occupational Diseases) Convention, 1925 (No. 18)
C019 – Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention, 1925 (No. 19)
C020 – Night Work (Bakeries) Convention, 1925 (No. 20)
C021 – Inspection of Emigrants Convention, 1926 (No. 21)
C022 – Seamen’s Articles of Agreement Convention, 1926 (No. 22)
C023 – Repatriation of Seamen Convention, 1926 (No. 23)
C024 – Sickness Insurance (Industry) Convention, 1927 (No. 24)
C025 – Sickness Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1927 (No. 25)
C026 – Minimum Wage-Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928 (No. 26)
C027 – Marking of Weight (Packages Transported by Vessels) Convention, 1929 (No. 27)
C028 – Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Convention, 1929 (No. 28)
C029 – Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
P029 – Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930
C030 – Hours of Work (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1930 (No. 30)
C031 – Hours of Work (Coal Mines) Convention, 1931 (No. 31)
C032 – Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Convention (Revised), 1932 (No. 32)
C033 – Minimum Age (Non-Industrial Employment) Convention, 1932 (No. 33)
C034 – Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention, 1933 (No. 34)
C035 – Old-Age Insurance (Industry, etc.) Convention, 1933 (No. 35)
C036 – Old-Age Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1933 (No. 36)
C037 – Invalidity Insurance (Industry, etc.) Convention, 1933 (No. 37)
C038 – Invalidity Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1933 (No. 38)
C039 – Survivors’ Insurance (Industry, etc.) Convention, 1933 (No. 39)
C040 – Survivors’ Insurance (Agriculture) Convention, 1933 (No. 40)
C041 – Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1934 (No. 41)
C042 – Workmen’s Compensation (Occupational Diseases) Convention (Revised), 1934 (No. 42)
C043 – Sheet-Glass Works Convention, 1934 (No. 43)
C044 – Unemployment Provision Convention, 1934 (No. 44)
C045 – Underground Work (Women) Convention, 1935 (No. 45)
C046 – Hours of Work (Coal Mines) Convention (Revised), 1935 (No. 46)
C047 – Forty-Hour Week Convention, 1935 (No. 47)
C048 – Maintenance of Migrants’ Pension Rights Convention, 1935 (No. 48)
C049 – Reduction of Hours of Work (Glass-Bottle Works) Convention, 1935 (No. 49)
C050 – Recruiting of Indigenous Workers Convention, 1936 (No. 50)
C051 – Reduction of Hours of Work (Public Works) Convention, 1936 (No. 51)
C052 – Holidays with Pay Convention, 1936 (No. 52)
C053 – Officers’ Competency Certificates Convention, 1936 (No. 53)
C054 – Holidays with Pay (Sea) Convention, 1936 (No. 54)
C055 – Shipowners’ Liability (Sick and Injured Seamen) Convention, 1936 (No. 55)
C056 – Sickness Insurance (Sea) Convention, 1936 (No. 56)
C057 – Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention, 1936 (No. 57)
C058 – Minimum Age (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1936 (No. 58)
C059 – Minimum Age (Industry) Convention (Revised), 1937 (No. 59)
C060 – Minimum Age (Non-Industrial Employment) Convention (Revised), 1937 (No. 60)
C061 – Reduction of Hours of Work (Textiles) Convention, 1937 (No. 61)
C062 – Safety Provisions (Building) Convention, 1937 (No. 62)
C063 – Convention concerning Statistics of Wages and Hours of Work, 1938 (No. 63)
C064 – Contracts of Employment (Indigenous Workers) Convention, 1939 (No. 64)
C065 – Penal Sanctions (Indigenous Workers) Convention, 1939 (No. 65)
C066 – Migration for Employment Convention, 1939 (No. 66)
C067 – Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport) Convention, 1939 (No. 67)
C068 – Food and Catering (Ships’ Crews) Convention, 1946 (No. 68)
C069 – Certification of Ships’ Cooks Convention, 1946 (No. 69)
C070 – Social Security (Seafarers) Convention, 1946 (No. 70)
C071 – Seafarers’ Pensions Convention, 1946 (No. 71)
C072 – Paid Vacations (Seafarers) Convention, 1946 (No. 72)
C073 – Medical Examination (Seafarers) Convention, 1946 (No. 73)
C074 – Certification of Able Seamen Convention, 1946 (No. 74)
C075 – Accommodation of Crews Convention, 1946 (No. 75)
C076 – Wages, Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention, 1946 (No. 76)
C077 – Medical Examination of Young Persons (Industry) Convention, 1946 (No. 77)
C078 – Medical Examination of Young Persons (Non-Industrial Occupations) Convention, 1946 (No. 78)
C079 – Night Work of Young Persons (Non-Industrial Occupations) Convention, 1946 (No. 79)
C080 – Final Articles Revision Convention, 1946 (No. 80)
C081 – Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81)
P081 – Protocol of 1995 to the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947
C082 – Social Policy (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention, 1947 (No. 82)
C083 – Labour Standards (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention, 1947 (No. 83)
C084 – Right of Association (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention, 1947 (No. 84)
C085 – Labour Inspectorates (Non-Metropolitan Territories) Convention, 1947 (No. 85)
C086 – Contracts of Employment (Indigenous Workers) Convention, 1947 (No. 86)
C087 – Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (No. 87)
C088 – Employment Service Convention, 1948 (No. 88)
C089 – Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1948 (No. 89)
P089 – Protocol of 1990 to the Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1948
C090 – Night Work of Young Persons (Industry) Convention (Revised), 1948 (No. 90)
C091 – Paid Vacations (Seafarers) Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 91)
C092 – Accommodation of Crews Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 92)
C093 – Wages, Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 93)
C094 – Labour Clauses (Public Contracts) Convention, 1949 (No. 94)
C095 – Protection of Wages Convention, 1949 (No. 95)
C096 – Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 96)
C097 – Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97)
C098 – Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98)
C099 – Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery (Agriculture) Convention, 1951 (No. 99)
C100 – Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100)
C101 – Holidays with Pay (Agriculture) Convention, 1952 (No. 101)
C102 – Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1952 (No. 102)
C103 – Maternity Protection Convention (Revised), 1952 (No. 103)
C104 – Abolition of Penal Sanctions (Indigenous Workers) Convention, 1955 (No. 104)
C105 – Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)
C106 – Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1957 (No. 106)
C107 – Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention, 1957 (No. 107)
C108 – Seafarers’ Identity Documents Convention, 1958 (No. 108)
C109 – Wages, Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1958 (No. 109)
C110 – Plantations Convention, 1958 (No. 110)
P110 – Protocol of 1982 to the Plantations Convention, 1958
C111 – Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111)
C112 – Minimum Age (Fishermen) Convention, 1959 (No. 112)
C113 – Medical Examination (Fishermen) Convention, 1959 (No. 113)
C114 – Fishermen’s Articles of Agreement Convention, 1959 (No. 114)
C115 – Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 (No. 115)
C116 – Final Articles Revision Convention, 1961 (No. 116)
C117 – Social Policy (Basic Aims and Standards) Convention, 1962 (No. 117)
C118 – Equality of Treatment (Social Security) Convention, 1962 (No. 118)
C119 – Guarding of Machinery Convention, 1963 (No. 119)
C120 – Hygiene (Commerce and Offices) Convention, 1964 (No. 120)
C121 – Employment Injury Benefits Convention, 1964 [Schedule I amended in 1980] (No. 121)
C122 – Employment Policy Convention, 1964 (No. 122)
C123 – Minimum Age (Underground Work) Convention, 1965 (No. 123)
C124 – Medical Examination of Young Persons (Underground Work) Convention, 1965 (No. 124)
C125 – Fishermen’s Competency Certificates Convention, 1966 (No. 125)
C126 – Accommodation of Crews (Fishermen) Convention, 1966 (No. 126)
C127 – Maximum Weight Convention, 1967 (No. 127)
C128 – Invalidity, Old-Age and Survivors’ Benefits Convention, 1967 (No. 128)
C129 – Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129)
C130 – Medical Care and Sickness Benefits Convention, 1969 (No. 130)
C131 – Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970 (No. 131)
C132 – Holidays with Pay Convention (Revised), 1970 (No. 132)
C133 – Accommodation of Crews (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1970 (No. 133)
C134 – Prevention of Accidents (Seafarers) Convention, 1970 (No. 134)
C135 – Workers’ Representatives Convention, 1971 (No. 135)
C136 – Benzene Convention, 1971 (No. 136)
C137 – Dock Work Convention, 1973 (No. 137)
C138 – Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)
C139 – Occupational Cancer Convention, 1974 (No. 139)
C140 – Paid Educational Leave Convention, 1974 (No. 140)
C141 – Rural Workers’ Organisations Convention, 1975 (No. 141)
C142 – Human Resources Development Convention, 1975 (No. 142)
C143 – Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143)
C144 – Tripartite Consultation (International Labour Standards) Convention, 1976 (No. 144)
C145 – Continuity of Employment (Seafarers) Convention, 1976 (No. 145)
C146 – Seafarers’ Annual Leave with Pay Convention, 1976 (No. 146)
C147 – Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976 (No. 147)
P147 – Protocol of 1996 to the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976
C148 – Working Environment (Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration) Convention, 1977 (No. 148)
C149 – Nursing Personnel Convention, 1977 (No. 149)
C150 – Labour Administration Convention, 1978 (No. 150)
C151 – Labour Relations (Public Service) Convention, 1978 (No. 151)
C152 – Occupational Safety and Health (Dock Work) Convention, 1979 (No. 152)
C153 – Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport) Convention, 1979 (No. 153)
C154 – Collective Bargaining Convention, 1981 (No. 154)
C155 – Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155)
P155 – Protocol of 2002 to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981
C156 – Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981 (No. 156)
C157 – Maintenance of Social Security Rights Convention, 1982 (No. 157)
C158 – Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No. 158)
C159 – Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention, 1983 (No. 159)
C160 – Labour Statistics Convention, 1985 (No. 160)
C161 – Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985 (No. 161)
C162 – Asbestos Convention, 1986 (No. 162)
C163 – Seafarers’ Welfare Convention, 1987 (No. 163)
C164 – Health Protection and Medical Care (Seafarers) Convention, 1987 (No. 164)
C165 – Social Security (Seafarers) Convention (Revised), 1987 (No. 165)
C166 – Repatriation of Seafarers Convention (Revised), 1987 (No. 166)
C167 – Safety and Health in Construction Convention, 1988 (No. 167)
C168 – Employment Promotion and Protection against Unemployment Convention, 1988 (No. 168)
C169 – Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169)
C170 – Chemicals Convention, 1990 (No. 170)
C171 – Night Work Convention, 1990 (No. 171)
C172 – Working Conditions (Hotels and Restaurants) Convention, 1991 (No. 172)
C173 – Protection of Workers’ Claims (Employer’s Insolvency) Convention, 1992 (No. 173)
C174 – Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents Convention, 1993 (No. 174)
C175 – Part-Time Work Convention, 1994 (No. 175)
C176 – Safety and Health in Mines Convention, 1995 (No. 176)
C177 – Home Work Convention, 1996 (No. 177)
C178 – Labour Inspection (Seafarers) Convention, 1996 (No. 178)
C179 – Recruitment and Placement of Seafarers Convention, 1996 (No. 179)
C180 – Seafarers’ Hours of Work and the Manning of Ships Convention, 1996 (No. 180)
C181 – Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No. 181)
C182 – Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)
C183 – Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 (No. 183)
C184 – Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001 (No. 184)
C185 – Seafarers’ Identity Documents Convention (Revised), 2003 (No. 185)
MLC, 2006 – Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (MLC, 2006)
C187 – Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 2006 (No. 187)
C188 – Work in Fishing Convention, 2007 (No. 188)
C189 – Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189)
P029 – Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930
P081 – Protocol of 1995 to the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947
P089 – Protocol of 1990 to the Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1948
P110 – Protocol of 1982 to the Plantations Convention, 1958
P147 – Protocol of 1996 to the Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976
P155 – Protocol of 2002 to the Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981

Indian Government Latest Efforts Against Child Labour:

The Government of India has been working in a concerted manner to eliminate child labour from the country by following a multipronged strategy by including both stringent legislative and Project based approach.

A landmark step in the endeavour to have a child labour free society was the enactment of the Child labour (Prohibition and Prevention) amendment Act, 2016 in August 2016 that provides for complete prohibition on employment of children below 14 years in all occupations and processes and prohibits employment of adolescents (14-18 years) in hazardous occupations and processes. The age of admission to employment has been linked to the age of compulsory education under Right to Education Act (RTE), 2009.

Besides the amendment in the Act, Government of India has also notified the amendment in the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Central Rules after extensive consultation with the stakeholders. The Rules for the first time provide broad and specific framework for prevention, prohibition, rescue and rehabilitation of child and adolescent workers. To clarify on issues related with help in family and family enterprises and definition of family with respect to child, specific provisions have been incorporated in rules.

Further, it also provides for safeguards of artists which have been permitted to work under the Act, in terms of hours of work and working conditions. The rules provide for specific provisions incorporating duties and responsibilities of enforcement agencies in order to ensure effective implementation and compliance of the provisions of the Act.

In order to clarify the issues on Schedule of hazardous occupations and processes, the Schedule has been reviewed and the intent notification has been issued to include a comprehensive list of about 118 occupation and processes.

India was in the process of providing a digital platform ‘PENCIL’ which has components ensuring enforcement of the Act, mechanism for redressal of complaints, child tracking system and a monitoring mechanism. This platform would integrate all the State Governments with the Central Government for effective coordination and convergence of various measures being taken for compliance of the Act.

Among the various measures taken recently to meet the objective of child labour free society, the prominent one was strengthening of the National Child Labour Project (NCLP), which is a rehabilitative scheme, providing bridge education and vocational training to adolescents. This scheme has been strengthened recently in terms of improving its quality and extending its coverage to all the districts of the country. For effective implementation of the project, the NCLP guidelines have been reviewed.

The Civil Society groups and the prominent child labour activists have widely appreciated India’s recent initiative for complete eradication of child labour.

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